Plants: Pupils should be taught to identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees.
Pupils should be taught to identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including trees.
Pupils should use the local environment throughout the year to explore and answer questions about plants growing in their habitat. Where possible, they should observe the growth of flowers and vegetables that they have planted. They should become familiar with common names of flowers, examples of deciduous and evergreen trees, and plant structures (including leaves, flowers (blossom), petals, fruit, roots, bulb, seed, trunk, branches, stem). Pupils might work scientifically by: observing closely, perhaps using magnifying glasses, and comparing and contrasting familiar plants; describing how they were able to identify and group them, and drawing diagrams showing the parts of different plants including trees. Pupils might keep records of how plants have changed over time, for example, the leaves falling off trees and buds opening; and compare and contrast what they have found out about different plants.
Animals, including humans
Pupils should be taught to identify and name a variety of common animals including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
Pupils should be taught to identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores
Pupils should use the local environment throughout the year to explore and answer questions about animals in their habitat. They should understand how to take care of animals taken from their local environment and the need to return them safely after study. Pupils should become familiar with the common names of some fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, including those that are kept as pets. Pupils should have plenty of opportunities to learn the names of the main body parts (including head, neck, arms, elbows, legs, knees, face, ears, eyes, hair, mouth, teeth) through games, actions, songs and rhymes. Pupils might work scientifically by: using their observations to compare and contrast animals at first hand or through videos and photographs, describing how they identify and group them; grouping animals according to what they eat; and using their senses to compare different textures, sounds and smells.
Pupils should be taught to distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made
Pupils should be taught to identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water, and rock
Pupils should be taught to describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties.
Pupils should explore, name, discuss and raise and answer questions about everyday materials so that they become familiar with the names of materials and properties such as: hard/soft; stretchy/stiff; shiny/dull; rough/smooth; bendy/not bendy; waterproof/not waterproof; absorbent/not absorbent; opaque/transparent. Pupils should explore and experiment with a wide variety of materials, not only those listed in the programme of study, but including for example: brick, paper, fabrics, elastic, foil.
Pupils might work scientifically by: performing simple tests to explore questions, for example: ‘What is the best material for an umbrella? … for lining a dog basket? … for curtains? … for a bookshelf? … for a gymnast’s leotard?
Pupils should be taught to observe changes across the four seasons
Pupils should be taught to o
Pupils should observe and talk about changes in the weather and the seasons.
Note: pupils should be warned that it is not safe to look directly at the sun, even when wearing dark glasses.
Pupils might work scientifically by: making tables and charts about the weather; and making displays of what happens in the world around them, including day length, as the seasons change.