Animals, including humans
Pupils should be taught to describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans. Pupils should be taught to identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions. Pupils should be taught to construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.
Pupils should be introduced to the main body parts associated with the digestive system, for example: mouth, tongue, teeth, oesophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine, and explore questions that help them to understand their special functions.
Pupils might work scientifically by: comparing the teeth of carnivores and herbivores and suggesting reasons for differences; finding out what damages teeth and how to look after them. They might draw and discuss their ideas about the digestive system and compare them with models or images.
States of matter
Pupils should be taught to compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases. Pupils should be taught to observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C). Pupils should be taught to identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature.
Pupils should explore a variety of everyday materials and develop simple descriptions of the states of matter (solids hold their shape; liquids form a pool not a pile; gases escape from an unsealed container). Pupils should observe water as a solid, a liquid and a gas and should note the changes to water when it is heated or cooled.
Note: teachers should avoid using materials where heating is associated with chemical change, for example, through baking or burning.
Pupils might work scientifically by: grouping and classifying a variety of different materials; exploring the effect of temperature on substances such as chocolate, butter, cream (for example, to make food such as chocolate crispy cakes and ice-cream for a party). They could research the temperature at which materials change state, for example, when iron melts or when oxygen condenses into a liquid. They might observe and record evaporation over a period of time, for example, a puddle in the playground or washing on a line, and investigate the effect of temperature on washing drying or snowmen melting.
Pupils should be taught to identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating. Pupils should be taught to recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear. Pupils should be taught to find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it. Pupils should be taught to find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it. Pupils should be taught to recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases.
Pupils should explore and identify the way sound is made through vibration in a range of different musical instruments from around the world; and find out how the pitch and volume of sounds can be changed in a variety of ways.
Pupils might work scientifically by: finding patterns in the sounds that are made by different objects such as saucepan lids of different sizes or elastic bands of different thicknesses. They might make earmuffs from a variety of different materials to investigate which provides the best insulation against sound. They could make and play their own instruments by using what they have found out about pitch and volume.
Pupils should be taught to identify common appliances that run on electricity. Pupils should be taught to construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers. Pupils should be taught to identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery. Pupils should be taught to recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit. Pupils should be taught to recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors.Pupils should construct simple series circuits, trying different components, for example, bulbs, buzzers and motors, and including switches, and use their circuits to create simple devices. Pupils should draw the circuit as a pictorial representation, not necessarily using conventional circuit symbols at this stage; these will be introduced in year 6.
Note: pupils might use the terms current and voltage, but these should not be introduced or defined formally at this stage. Pupils should be taught about precautions for working safely with electricity. Pupils might work scientifically by: observing patterns, for example, that bulbs get brighter if more cells are added, that metals tend to be conductors of electricity, and that some materials can and some cannot be used to connect across a gap in a circuit.